When did the term “artificial management” first appear?

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Are you familiar with this quote?

“Artificial management by computers and expert systems–can perform pre-established, well-defined managerial tasks. Many technical and procedural decisions are best made by artificial managers. And what of the human managers? They are free to devote more time and energy to ambiguous, integrative areas such as strategy.”

These sentences come from an article by E. Geisler, who in 1986 began a discussion on whether a robot manager could replace a human manager.

See this article:

Geisler, E. (1986). Artificial management and the artificial manager. Business Horizons, 29 (4), July-August, 17-21.

Despite the development of technology, the Internet, ChatGPT and many other inventions, the topic is not at all that popular among researchers and practitioners. One only has to look at the most popular Web of Science database and type the phrase “artificial management” into the search engine for this phrase to appear in the title of an article. I have shown the number of occurrences of this phrase in the title picture above.

This phrase has been used only 171 times in management science in the last 5 years, and such a high result is only because the occurrences of both words in the title are counted, not the whole phrase “artificial management.” This is really strange. Could it be that no research has been done on this topic? If you have your own opinion, please email me.